Cybersecurity Terminologies – Vulnerability, Malware, Trojan, Backdoor, etc.

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Welcome back, techies! Through our introductory article, we’ve got some introduction to Cybersecurity and got answers to some basic questions related to cybersecurity. We hope you all read and loved the roadmap to becoming a cybersecurity expert we provided you along with the introduction article.

Then next, While getting started with Cybersecurity it is important to know some common terminologies. But, When it comes to cyber security, there are a lot of terminologies that get thrown around. This can be overwhelming for someone who is just getting started in the field. Don’t worry, we got you covered. In this article, we will explore the various terminology associated with cybersecurity and explain the basics so that everyone can understand.

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Cybersecurity Terms:


When it comes to cyber security, the term “vulnerability” refers to a weakness that can be exploited by an attacker. Vulnerabilities can be found in both hardware and software, and they can be exploited to gain access to sensitive data or disrupt system operations.

For example, if a computer does not have up-to-date security software, it is more vulnerable to attack than one that does.

There are many different types of vulnerabilities, but some of the most common include buffer overflows, SQL injection flaws, and cross-site scripting bugs. To protect against these and other threats, organizations need to implement strong security measures such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and patch management processes.


A threat is anything that has the potential to harm an asset. These are intentional or unintentional actions that end up harming your computer or network.
Threats exist at all levels of the system: from an individual hacker who might try to steal your passwords or access your network, to a nation-state actor who might try to launch a cyberattack against your government.


Risk is the probability that a specific threat will take advantage of a specific vulnerability. Depending on various factors, the likelihood of an attack occurring can be high, medium, or low. It’s measured on a scale from 1 to 10 with 1 being “not likely” and 10 being “definitely going to happen”.


Control is a measure taken to reduce the risk of an attack happening. For example, installing security software on all computers in an organization is a control that reduces the risk of those computers being hacked.

zero-day vulnerability

This is the term we often see in our cybersecurity news articles. Here is the explanation.

A zero-day vulnerability is a security flaw in a piece of software that is unknown to the software vendor. Since this is unknown to the vendor, there will be no patch to fix the issue. So it will be like the software vendor has zero time/zero days to fix this vulnerability and hence it is called “zero-day vulnerability”.

These vulnerabilities are often exploited by attackers to gain access to systems or data. Zero-day vulnerabilities can be difficult to protect against because they are not known until after an attack has occurred. To mitigate the risk of these attacks, it is important to keep your software up to date and patch any known vulnerabilities promptly.


An exploit is a method used by attackers to take advantage of a security flaw in order to gain access to a system or sensitive data. Exploits are often used in conjunction with other attacks, such as phishing or social engineering, in order to increase the chances of success.

There are many different types of exploits, but some of the most common include buffer overflows, SQL injection, and cross-site scripting (XSS). Depending on the nature of the flaw being exploited, an attacker may be able to gain access to sensitive data, execute arbitrary code, or even take control of the system entirely.

As new vulnerabilities are discovered, attackers will often develop new exploits to take advantage of them. For this reason, it is important for systems administrators and users to keep up-to-date on the latest cybersecurity news and patch their systems accordingly.


The term “Trojan” comes from the story of the Trojan War, in which the Greeks tricked the Trojans into accepting a large wooden horse filled with soldiers into their city. The Trojans thought the horse was a gift, but it was actually a trap. In the world of cyber security, a Trojan is a type of malware that masquerades as something benign in order to trick users into downloading and installing it. Once installed, a Trojan can give an attacker complete control over the victim’s machine. Trojans are often used to steal sensitive information like passwords and credit card numbers.


  • Malicious + Software == Malware

Malware is a harmful and malicious type of software that can cause serious harm to computers, computer systems, and their data. Malware is often used for stealing personal info, destroying or corrupting data, and taking control of the machine.
Several types of malware like keyloggers, adware, etc. are available in this cyber world. we will discuss them in a separate article.

Password Cracking

When it comes to cyber security, one of the most commonly used terms is “password cracking”. So, what exactly is password cracking?

Password cracking is the process of guessing or recovering passwords from data that has been stored in a computer system. In most cases, password crackers use brute-force methods to guess passwords. This involves attempting each character combination until the right password is discovered

There are several ways that passwords can be cracked, including dictionary attacks, rainbow table attacks, and social engineering. Dictionary attacks test common/popular terms and phrases that could be used as passwords. Rainbow table attacks take advantage of pre-computed tables of password hashes. Social engineering involves tricking people into revealing their passwords.

Password cracking can be a serious security threat. If your passwords are not properly secured, then it may be possible for someone to gain access to your accounts and sensitive information. Be sure to use strong passwords and never reuse the same password on multiple sites.


A backdoor is a technique for bypassing standard authentication or security measures to access a system without authorization. Backdoors can be installed by malicious attackers, but they can also be unintentionally introduced during the development or configuration process.

Backdoors typically give attackers a way to remotely access and control a system without being detected. They can be used to eavesdrop on communications, steal data, or launch other attacks.

There are many ways to install backdoors, but some common methods include installing unpatched software, planting malware, or modifying system configurations.

Attackers often use backdoors as part of a larger campaign to gain access to multiple systems. Once they have gained access to one system, they may attempt to pivot to other systems on the network.

Organizations can defend against backdoor attacks by implementing strong security controls and keeping systems up-to-date with the latest patches and updates.


I hope this article on common cybersecurity terminology will help you up to speed on the cybersecurity world. By understanding the meaning of these basic terms, you can understand the cybersecurity news, advanced concepts, and hacking tutorials on hackerzhome much more easily. Share your thoughts in the comment section. See you all in the next article.

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A Computer science Engineer, Certified Ethical hacker (CEH), Offensive Security Certified professional (OSCP), SOC Analyst & Content Creator.

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